The first and second parties involved in a pregnancy are the male and female couple wishing to become parents. The three principal components required to achieve a successful pregnancy are a healthy egg, sperm and uterus. If any of these components are absent, then an option is to have a third party, or someone besides the couple, become involved. Third-party reproduction is when a couple uses a sperm donor, egg donor or a gestational carrier to help them become parents.

Each third party becomes involved in very distinct and completely different ways. A sperm donor’s involvement, for example, may simply be to produce a semen sample at a sperm bank, while a gestational carrier is committed for at least the nine months of pregnancy. Each has its own intricacies, processes, regulations and procedures that a certified IVF center can help a patient navigate through. It often involves a multi-team approach including the reproductive endocrinologist, the IVF team, an experienced attorney, a psychologist, third-party agencies, etc.